Monday, November 13, 2006

Quiz - 5 - Answers


Prostrations to all.

Please find answers inline. Pardon the late reply for the answers. Really happy that whoever answered the same spend good time learning and understanding both madhva's work as well as the counter work. The score for the same are:

Mallika - 9
Rajesh Kumar - 8.5
Neelakantan - 8.5
Rajesh Gaurav - 9

1. There are three khandana works of Madhva directed against advaita. Name the three works.

ANSWER: The three khandana works are mayavada khandana, anumaana khandana and upaadhi khandana.

Mayavada khandana attacks the anubandha chathustaya of advaita or advaita itself in general.
Anumana khandana also known as prapancha mithyaatva anumaana khandana attacks the various inferences given by advaitins to prove the illusory or mithyaatva of the world (jagan mithyaatva). A deeper criticism is found in Nyaayamrita of Vyaasateertha which was answered by advaita siddhi of madhusudana saraswathi.
Upaadhi khandana attacks the concept of upadhi or limitations which differentiates the kutastha atman from brahman - the upadhi of maya or avidya or the three bodies is thoroughly attacked as being illogical.

2. What is the main topic of Mayavada Khandana of Madhvacharya?

ANSWER: The main topic is refutation of anubandha chathustayam of advaita and hence refuting advaita itself in general.

3. What are the two qualities (adjectives) of Vishnu accepted by Dvaita?

ANSWER: Vishnu is "devoid of bad qualities" and "full of auspicious qualities". One is negation of bad qualities & other attributing infinite qualities.

Madhva says thus in tattva viveka
svatanthro bhagavaan vishnuh nirdosha akhila sadgunah

Bhagavan Vishnu is indepedent -- nirdosha or devoid of doshas & akhila sadgunah or filled with all good qualities.

4. How does advaita define Vishnu and how does Mayavada Darpana define Narasimha?

ANSWER: Vishnu vyaapanasheelam (this is what Sankara gives in many places) - vishnu is one who is all pervasive.

Yat cha kinchit jagat sarvam drishyathe srooyathe api va
anthar bahischa tat sarvam vyaapyan naaraayana sthitah

Whatever is there in the world as seen or heard, all is pervaded in and out by Narayana -- thus says Narayana Sooktham.

Mayavada darpana defines Narasimha as the baadavagnih which removes the ocean of samsaara & of the nature of sat chit ananda. As explained earlier, baadavagnih is that fire which dries up the ocean (we have heard of ocean vanquishing fire but this fire dries up the ocean as well).

5. What is anubandha chathustayam?

ANSWER: Anubandha chathustayam can be said to be preface or the four important things about a particular work.
a) adhikaari - eligible person to learn and benefit from the work
b) vishaya - subject matter of the work
c) prayojanam - fruit of learning the work
d) sambandha - relation between vishaya and prayojanam

6. Explain the words pointing out anubandha chathustayam in madhva’s dhyaana sloka and the dhyaana sloka of Mayavada Darpana.

Mayavada khandana dhyaana sloka is:
Narasimha akhila ajnaana matha dhvaantha divaakarah
jayathi amitha satjnaana sukha shakthi payonidhih

Vishayah - akhila ajnaana matha dhvaantha - destroyer of all the tenets of ajnaana or advaita (this being the main content of mayavada khandana)
prayojanam - jayathi - praise to the Lord -- as per dvaita, praising the Lord or knowing that the Lord alone is independent & praising him will lead the Lord to help the seeker out of ignorance and thereby give liberation by the grace of the Lord
adhikaari - akhila ajnaana matha dhvaantha and jayathi as well --- one who wants to get rid of wrong notions of advaita thereby praising the Lord as different from limited jeeva
sambandha - one who learns teh work will get the prayojanam of grace of teh Lord (the second line of the verse points to the sambandha as the link between praise and getting grace of teh Lord)

Mayavada darpana dhyaana sloka is
Narasimho akhila samsaara bhava baadavaagnih
satyam jnaanam anantham cha sarva upaadhi vivarjitham

vishayah - akhila samsaara bhava baadavaagnih -- that agni which removes the ocean of samsaara through proper knowledge of the scriptures as jnaana alone removes ajnaana
prayojanam - satyam jnaanam anantham - realization of bliss which is the very purpose of any being
adhikaari - akhila samsaara bhava -- one who wants to come out of hte ocean of samsaara
sambandha -- sambandha is baadavagnih - that agni which removes ignorance or gives teh prayojanam through proper knowledge or the vishaya.

7. What is Baadavagni?

Baadavagnih is the fire that dries up ocean - the fire of knoweldge removes ajnaana (thereby removing the effect of ajnaana which is karma -- as per Krishna, jnaana removes karma).

8. What are the three reasons stated by dvaitins to prove that advaita is anaarambhaneeyam (cannot be started)?

a) anyatha prathipaadakatvaat - as the subject matter of advaita is different from what scriptures propound
b) baaditha vishayatvaat - since the subject-matter or vishaya vanishes after realization even as the forgotten Self (which is the vishaya for a forgotten person who has lost his memory) vanishes after remembrance dawns.
c) vedaadeh tat paratva niraasa - since vedas propound contrary things to advaita thereby refuting advaita

9. What are the counter three reasons that Mayavada Darpana gives to show that advaita is to be started (the arguments counter or refute the arguments stated by dvaitins that advaita is anaarambhaneeyam)?

a) sruthi ukthatvaat -as sruthi propounds advaita in statements like sarvam khalu idam brahma, neha nana asthi kinchana etc.
b) avidhyayaa brahmano vishayatva angeekaaraat -as long as forgotten, the vishaya is there - but after remembrance, vishaya vanishes - it all depends on whether ajnaana is there or not -- and advaita accepts vishaya as long as ajnaana is there.... therefore no fault of baadhita vishayam
c) upapatteh - logical enough to accept the tenet of advaita

10. What are the three parts of an anumaana (inference) that Vedanta accepts?

prathijnaa - that which is to be proved
hetu - reason
udaaharana - example

The hill has fire, because smoke is seen, like in hearth.

prathijnaa - hill has fire (to be proved)
hethu - because smoke is seen in the hill (wherever smoke is there, fire is also there)
udaaharana - like in hearth where smoke is seen & hence fire is also present

Prostrations to all.


Let a moment not pass by without remembering God


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